Remedy your deficiencies

You want to study a degree programme for which you lack the right profile subjects or proper previous ‘mbo’ education. In other words, you have one or more deficiencies which you will need to remedy. 

Deficiencies can be remedied as follows:

  • by obtaining a modular certificate:  
    • at an educational institute / distance learning institute
    • through adult education / evening classes  
    • at a private education institute 
  • by means of independent study and taking the state exam (apply before 1 January). For more information, please contact the student counsellor of your school.  

Economics or ‘M&O’ deficiency 

Breda University of Applied Sciences offers applicants the possibility to take a deficiency test for economics or ‘M&O’. These tests are administered at ‘havo 5’ final exam level. 

Please note: If you have a ‘vwo, C&M’ profile, you will not qualify for an accelerated study track after taking a deficiency test (at ‘havo’ level). 

How to register

Send an e-mail to the degree programme of  your choice in which you explain for which subject you would like to take a deficiency test.  

Participation in a deficiency test will only be possible if you have already applied via Studielink. Your registration for the test will be final once we have received the filled in registration form and payment from you and you have received a confirmation from us. 


Taking the deficiency test costs €75.


The test will be administered on 13 June 2019.

Test subject matter

The tests will be administered at ‘havo 5’ final exam level. As for economics and ‘M&O’, we will test the domains that are tested in the national exams. The content of the exam programmes can be found at Here you will also find old exams to practise with.  

Literature to be studied  

You can use any resource that is used in secondary schools to attain ‘havo 5’ level. We recommend the following, frequently used resources: 


  • Index
  • Pincode
  • Praktische Economie


  • M&O in Balans
  • 200% M&O


From approximately six weeks prior to the date of the test, you can send clearly formulated questions to a lecturer of Breda University of Applied Sciences. In addition, one or two coaching meetings will be organised.